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Tag Archives: MAP

[Clinical Art][Circulation] Hemodynamic Monitoring – Tissue Oxygenation and Cardiac Output


Key Points No hemodynamic monitoring device will improve patient outcome unless coupled to a treatment, which itself improves outcome. Low venous oxygen saturations need not mean circulatory shock but do imply circulatory stress, as they may occur in the setting of hypoxemia, anemia, exercise, as well as circulatory shock. There is no "normal" cardiac output, […]

Hemodynamic Monitoring


Intraarterial pressure is typically measured from the radial, brachial, axillary, or femoral arteries. Systolic Amplification The contour of the arterial pressure waveform changes as it moves away from the proximal aorta. This i shown in Figure 7.4. Note that as the pressure wave moves toward the periphery, the systolic pressure gradually increases and the systolic […]

The Management of Hypertension (Pathophysiologic Basises)


Hypertension is a common diseases and is defined as persistently elevated arterial blood pressure of >= 140/90 mm Hg. Most of patients belong to essential hypertension and a small percentage belong to secondary hypertension for which the most common causes include renal dysfunction resulting from severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) or renovascular disease. Besides, certain […]