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Tag Archives: Diagnosis

Evaluation of Chronic Heart Failure


Table 28-3 and 28-4, taken from the European Society of Cardiology heart failure guideline, recommend a routine assessment to establish the diagnosis and likely cause of heart failure. Once the diagnosis of heart failure has been made, the first step in evaluating heart failure is to determine the severity and type of cardiac dysfunction, by […]

Evidence-Based Medicine – How to Ask A Question


Foreground questions can be categorized into 5 types, including: 1.Therapy: determining the effect of interventions on patient-important outcomes (symptoms, function, morbidity, mortality, and costs) 2.Harm: ascertaining the effects of potentially harmful agents (including therapies from the first type of question) on patient-important outcomes 3.Differential diagnosis: in patients with a particular clinical presentation, establishing the frequency […]

Diagnosis of Myelofibrosis


Current diagnosis of PMF is based on the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, which enlist histopathologic, morphologic, clinical, and molecular-cytogenetic variables. The diagnosis of post-PV or post-ET MF is according to IWG-MRT criteria. Table 1 Diagnostic Criteria of Myelofibrosis In all 3 MF variants, typical laboratory features include anemia, peripheral blood leukoerythroblastosis, dacryocytosis, leukocytosis/thrombocytosis, […]

Pharmacotherapy Options in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a form of sleep-disordered breathing that is characterized by frequent episodes of snoring and a cessation in breathing for greater than 10 seconds, resulting in disrupted sleep. OSA results from decreased motor tone of either the tongue or airway dilator muscles, causing complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway during […]

The dignosis of diabetes mellitus


There are many types of diabetes mellitus. In general there are four types of diabetes. They are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, other specific types of diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results from β-cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes results from a progressive insulin secretory defect on the […]