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Category Archives: Urology

Renal Handling of Urea


Renal Handling of Urate Urate, an anion that is the base form of uric acid, provides a fascinating example of the renal handling of organic anions that is particularly important for clinical medicine and is illustrative of renal pathology. An increase in the plasma concentration of urate can cause gout and is thought to be […]

Basic Mechanisms of Renal Transepithelial Transport


A similar thread is available at There are basically three mechanisms for the transepithelial transport of substances, including water. First, two basic formulas should be introduced here for the understanding of transepithelial mechanisms, for solutes and water, respectively. For solutes, there is Pick’s first law of diffusion, Xd = D*A*(Δ[X]/ΔL), whereas, D: diffusion coefficient A: surface area […]

The Theories and the Risk Factors for Urinary Stones


    I would like to dedicate this thread to my dad, Cheney Hsiung, who devote his life to my mom, myself, and his many students over the years at 49th Middle School in Chengdu, Sichuan.     Mineralization in all biologic systems has a common theme in that the crystals and matrix are intertwined. […]