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Category Archives: Uncategorized

Pharmacokinetics – Distribution Series


As a result of either direct systemic administration or absorption from an extravascular route, drug reaches the systemic circulation, where it very rapidly distributes throughout the entire volume of plasma water and is delivered to tissues around the body. Two aspects of drug distribution need to be considered: how radidly, and to what extent, the […]

The Process of Differential Diagnosis


Elements of the Differential Diagnosis Decision-making on the Basis of Diagnosis. The physician endeavors to organize the subjective complaints and the objective findings of a patient in order to receive further indications to proceed. This approach is frequently chosen because a diagnosis in the conventional sense is not always easy to make, as more than […]

Conceiving the Research Question and Developing the Study Plan


The research question is the uncertainty that the investigator wants to resolve by performing his/her study. There is no shortage of good research questions, and even as we succeed in answering some questions, we remain surrounded by others. Clinical trials, for example, established that treatments that block the synthesis of estradiol (aromatase inhibitors) reduce the […]

Methods for Assessment of Liver Injury and Liver Function


Blood tests remain a mainstay for the diagnosis of a patient with suspected liver disease or to stage patients with known liver disease. In general, the goal of such tests is to detect the release of products that are characteristic of the liver into the bloodstream, thereby indicating liver cell injury. Similarly, accumulation of molecules […]

Diffusion of Gases


Diffusion of a gas occurs when there is a net movement of molecules from an area in which that particular gas exerts a high partial pressure to an area in which it exerts a lower partial pressure. Movement of a gas by diffusion is therefore different from the movement of gases through the conducting airways, […]