Skip to content

Category Archives: Pharmacology

[Endocrinology] The Agonist-Receptor Interaction and Pharmacodynamics of Thyroid Hormone


Thyroid Hormone Receptors and Cellular Events Thyroid hormone receptors are expressed in virtually all tissues and affect multiple cellular events. The cellular actions of thyroid hormones are mediated by multiple thyroid hormone receptor isoforms derived from 2 distinct genes (alpha and beta) encoding thyroid hormone receptors. The functional significance of the different isoforms has not yet […]

Specific Immunosuppressive Therapy


The ideal immunosuppressant would be antigen-specific, inhibiting the immune response to the alloantigens present in the graft (or vice versa alloantigens present in recipient in GVHD) while preserving the recipient's ability to respond to other foreign antigens. Although this goal has not yet been achieved, several more targeted immunosuppressive agents have been developed. Most involve […]

Write Again – Receptor Rationale – Pharmacodynamics


Type of Drug Receptors The effects of must drugs result from their interaction with macromolecular components of the organism. These interactions alter the function of the pertinent component and initiate the biochemical and physiological changes that are characteristic of the response to the drug. The term drug receptor or drug target denotes the cellular macromolecule or macromolecular […]

The Management of Hypertension (Pathophysiologic Basises)


Hypertension is a common diseases and is defined as persistently elevated arterial blood pressure of >= 140/90 mm Hg. Most of patients belong to essential hypertension and a small percentage belong to secondary hypertension for which the most common causes include renal dysfunction resulting from severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) or renovascular disease. Besides, certain […]

Antimicrobials – The Basic Mechanisms


The antimicrobials produce their bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects by targeting at certain sites of the pathogens which are susceptible to the antibiotics. Generally, the mechanisms of all antibiotics can be divided into five basic types, or four targets toward which these antibiotics act, including: cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, folate biosynthesis, and […]