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Category Archives: Laboratory Medicine

Inherited Variation and Polymorphism in DNA

03-Aug-17

The original Human Genome Project and the subsequent study of now many thousands of individuals worldwide have provided a vast amount of DNA sequence information. With this information in hand, one can begin to characterize the types and frequencies of polymorphic variation found in the human genome and to generate catalogues of human DNA sequence […]

Renal Handling of Urea

22-Jul-17

Renal Handling of Urate Urate, an anion that is the base form of uric acid, provides a fascinating example of the renal handling of organic anions that is particularly important for clinical medicine and is illustrative of renal pathology. An increase in the plasma concentration of urate can cause gout and is thought to be […]

Evaluation of Chronic Heart Failure

12-Jul-17

Table 28-3 and 28-4, taken from the European Society of Cardiology heart failure guideline, recommend a routine assessment to establish the diagnosis and likely cause of heart failure. Once the diagnosis of heart failure has been made, the first step in evaluating heart failure is to determine the severity and type of cardiac dysfunction, by […]

Some Critical Notices Should Knowing When Using Warfarin

30-Jun-17

PT/INR and Anticoagulation Status For the vast majority of patients        , monitoring is done using the prothrombin time with international normalized ratio (PT/INR), which reflects the degree of anticoagulation due to depletion of vitamin K-dependent coagulation. However, attention must be paid that the PT/INR in a patient on warfarin may note reflect the total anticoagulation status […]

The Differential Diagnosis of Abnormal Serum Uric Acid Concentration

28-Jun-17

Reference range: 4.0-8.5 mg/dL or 237-506 mmol/L for males >17 years old; 2.7-7.3 mg/dL or 161-434 mmol/L for females >17 years old Uric acid is the metabolic end-product of the purine bases of DNA. In humans, uric acid is not metabolized further and is eliminated unchanged by renal excretion (the net result of filtration, secretion, […]