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Category Archives: Infectious Diseases

[Pharmacotherapy] Pneumonia


Pneumonia is inflammation of the lung with consolidation. The cause of the inflammation is infection, which can be caused by a wide range of organisms. There are five classifications of pneumonia: community acquired, aspiration, hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated. Patients who develop pneumonia in the outpatient setting and have not been in any healthcare facilities, which […]

The TDM of Vancomycin


Question #1. B.C., a 65-year old, 45-kg man with a serum creatinine concentration of 2.2 mg/dL, is being treated for a presumed hospital-acquired, MRSA infection. Design a dosing regimen that will produce peak concentration less than 40 to 50 mg/L and through concentrations of 5 to 15 mg/L. Target Plasma Concentration Clearance and Volume of […]

Specific Immunosuppressive Therapy


The ideal immunosuppressant would be antigen-specific, inhibiting the immune response to the alloantigens present in the graft (or vice versa alloantigens present in recipient in GVHD) while preserving the recipient's ability to respond to other foreign antigens. Although this goal has not yet been achieved, several more targeted immunosuppressive agents have been developed. Most involve […]

Residents Series – Inflammatory Shock Syndromes


Definitions and Impactions SIRS/Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is a condition that is characterized by signs of systemic inflammation (e.g., fever, leukocytosis). The diagnosis of SIRS requires at least 2 of the following: 1.Temperature >38 C or <36 C 2.Heart rate >90 beats/min 3.Respiratory rate >20 breaths/min, or arterial PCO2 <32 mm Hg 4.WBC count >12,000/mm3 […]

The Barriers, The Innate Immune System, and Correlations to Inflammation


Defenses of the skin and Mucosa Epidermis The epidermis consists of stratified squamous cells, most of which are keratinocytes. Keratinocytes produce the protein keratin, which is not readily degraded by most microorganisms. As cells from the dermis are pushed outward into the epidermal region, they produce copious amounts of keratin and then die. This layer of […]