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Category Archives: Hemodynamics

[Clinical Art][Circulation] Hemodynamic Monitoring – Tissue Oxygenation and Cardiac Output


Key Points No hemodynamic monitoring device will improve patient outcome unless coupled to a treatment, which itself improves outcome. Low venous oxygen saturations need not mean circulatory shock but do imply circulatory stress, as they may occur in the setting of hypoxemia, anemia, exercise, as well as circulatory shock. There is no "normal" cardiac output, […]

[Clinical Art][Circulation] Interpretation of Hemodynamic Waveforms


Basic Knowledge Mechanism of Hemodynamic Monitoring The rapidly occurring events (represent mechanical forces) of cardiac chambers and vessels during cardaic cycle require conversion to an electrical signal to be transmitted and subsequently translated into an interpretable, graphic format. The pressure transducer is the essential component that translates the mechanical forces to electrical signals. The transducer may […]

Mechanism of Pulmonary Edema


Pulmonary edema is the extravascular accumulation of fluid in the lung. This pathologic condition may be caused by one or more physiologic abnormalities, but the result is inevitably impaired gas transfer. As the edema fluid builds up, first in the interstitium and later in alveoli, diffusion of gases – particularly oxygen – decreases. The capillary […]

[Respiration][Circulation] Blood Flow to the Lung – General and Pulmonary Vascular Resistance


The lung receives blood flow via both the bronchial circulation and the pulmonary circulation. Bronchial blood flow constitutes a very small portion of the output of the left ventricle and supplies part of the tracheobronchial tree with systemic arterial blood. Pulmonary blood flow (PBF) constitutes the entire output of the right venticle and supplies the […]

Pathophysiology of The Circulation


The Diastolic V-P Curve Figure 31-4B plots LVEDV against LVEDP. As ventricular volume increases from zero, the transmural pressure of the ventricle does not exceed zero until about 50 mL (the unstressed volume) is added. Then LVEDP increases in a curvilinear manner with ventricular volume (the stressed volume) first as a large change in volume […]