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Category Archives: Critical Care

Acute Potassium Disorders


Disorders of potassium homeostasis are common in hospitalized patients and may be associated with severe adverse clinical outcomes, including death. Prevention and proper treatment of hyper- and hypokalemia depend on an understanding of the underlying physiology. The total body potassium content of a 70-kg adult is about 3500 mmol (136.5 g), of which only 2% […]

Evaluation of Chronic Heart Failure


Table 28-3 and 28-4, taken from the European Society of Cardiology heart failure guideline, recommend a routine assessment to establish the diagnosis and likely cause of heart failure. Once the diagnosis of heart failure has been made, the first step in evaluating heart failure is to determine the severity and type of cardiac dysfunction, by […]

Evaluation of Renal Function


Assessment of kidney function using both qualitative and quantitative methods is an important part of the evaluation of patients and an essential characterization of individuals who participate in clinical research investigations. Estimating of creatinine clearance has been considered the clinical standard for assessment of kidney function for nearly 50 years, and continues to be used […]

[Clinical Art][Pharmacokinetics] Interpretation of Plasma Drug Concentrations (Steady-State)


Plasma drug concentration are measured in the clinical setting to determine whether a potentially therapeutic or toxic concentration has been produced by a given dosage regimen. This process is based on the assumption that plasma drug concentrations reflect drug concentrations at the receptor and, therefore, can be correlated with pharmacologic response. This assumption is not […]

[Clinical Art][Circulation] Hemodynamic Monitoring – Tissue Oxygenation and Cardiac Output


Key Points No hemodynamic monitoring device will improve patient outcome unless coupled to a treatment, which itself improves outcome. Low venous oxygen saturations need not mean circulatory shock but do imply circulatory stress, as they may occur in the setting of hypoxemia, anemia, exercise, as well as circulatory shock. There is no "normal" cardiac output, […]