Skip to content

Category Archives: Clinical Skills

Acute Potassium Disorders

15-Jul-17

Disorders of potassium homeostasis are common in hospitalized patients and may be associated with severe adverse clinical outcomes, including death. Prevention and proper treatment of hyper- and hypokalemia depend on an understanding of the underlying physiology. The total body potassium content of a 70-kg adult is about 3500 mmol (136.5 g), of which only 2% […]

Evaluation of Renal Function

03-May-17

Assessment of kidney function using both qualitative and quantitative methods is an important part of the evaluation of patients and an essential characterization of individuals who participate in clinical research investigations. Estimating of creatinine clearance has been considered the clinical standard for assessment of kidney function for nearly 50 years, and continues to be used […]

Clinical Skills – Cluster the Clinical Findings

18-Apr-17

It is often challenging to decide whether clinical data fit into one problem or several problems. If there is relatively long list of symptoms and signs, and an equally long list of potential explanations, one approach is to tease out separate clusters of observations and analyze one cluster at a time. Several clinical characteristics may […]

The Comprehensive Adult Health History

16-Apr-17

Initial Information Data and Time of History The date is always important. Be sure to document the time you evaluate the patient, especially in urgent, emergent, or hospital setitngs. Identify Data These include age, gender, marital status, and occupation. The source of history or referral can be the patient, a family member or friend, an […]

Creatinine Clearance Estimation – Non-Steady State

08-Mar-17

Using non-steady-state serum creatinine values to estimate creatinine clearance is difficult, and a number of approaches have been proposed. The author use Equation 1 below to estimate creatinine clearance when steady-state conditions have not been achieved. ClCr (mL/min) = { (Production of Creatinine in mg/day) – [(SCr 2 – SCr 1)(V Cr) / t]*(10 dL/L)} […]