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Category Archives: Cardiology

Regulation of Hemostasis

23-Jul-17

Key events that initiate and propagate coagulation are the redistribution of negatively charged phospholipids to the cell surface and the exposure of tissue factor to the blood. The appropriate negatively charged phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylserine, can arise as a result of either cellular activation with strong agonists like thrombin together with collagen in the case of […]

EKG Findings Related to Myocardial Infarction

15-Jul-17

In most infarctions, the EKG will reveal the correct diagnosis. An EKG should be performed immediately on anyone in whom an infarction is even remotely suspected. However, the initial EKG may not always be diagnostic, and the evolution of electrocardiographic changes varies from person to person; therefore, it is necessary to obtain serial cardiograms once […]

Acute Potassium Disorders

15-Jul-17

Disorders of potassium homeostasis are common in hospitalized patients and may be associated with severe adverse clinical outcomes, including death. Prevention and proper treatment of hyper- and hypokalemia depend on an understanding of the underlying physiology. The total body potassium content of a 70-kg adult is about 3500 mmol (136.5 g), of which only 2% […]

Evaluation of Chronic Heart Failure

12-Jul-17

Table 28-3 and 28-4, taken from the European Society of Cardiology heart failure guideline, recommend a routine assessment to establish the diagnosis and likely cause of heart failure. Once the diagnosis of heart failure has been made, the first step in evaluating heart failure is to determine the severity and type of cardiac dysfunction, by […]

[Clinical Art][Circulation] Hemodynamic Monitoring – Tissue Oxygenation and Cardiac Output

24-Oct-16

Key Points No hemodynamic monitoring device will improve patient outcome unless coupled to a treatment, which itself improves outcome. Low venous oxygen saturations need not mean circulatory shock but do imply circulatory stress, as they may occur in the setting of hypoxemia, anemia, exercise, as well as circulatory shock. There is no "normal" cardiac output, […]