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Monthly Archives: July 2017

Regulation of Hemostasis

23-Jul-17

Key events that initiate and propagate coagulation are the redistribution of negatively charged phospholipids to the cell surface and the exposure of tissue factor to the blood. The appropriate negatively charged phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylserine, can arise as a result of either cellular activation with strong agonists like thrombin together with collagen in the case of […]

Renal Handling of Urea

22-Jul-17

Renal Handling of Urate Urate, an anion that is the base form of uric acid, provides a fascinating example of the renal handling of organic anions that is particularly important for clinical medicine and is illustrative of renal pathology. An increase in the plasma concentration of urate can cause gout and is thought to be […]

Ammonia and Urea Cycle

20-Jul-17

Ammonia (NH3) is a small metabolite that results predominantly from protein and amino acid degradation. It is highly membrane-permeant and readily crosses epithelial barriers in its nonionized form. Ammonia does not have a physiologic function. However, it is important clinically because it is highly toxic to the nervous system. Because ammonia is being formed constantly […]

EKG Findings Related to Myocardial Infarction

15-Jul-17

In most infarctions, the EKG will reveal the correct diagnosis. An EKG should be performed immediately on anyone in whom an infarction is even remotely suspected. However, the initial EKG may not always be diagnostic, and the evolution of electrocardiographic changes varies from person to person; therefore, it is necessary to obtain serial cardiograms once […]

Acute Potassium Disorders

15-Jul-17

Disorders of potassium homeostasis are common in hospitalized patients and may be associated with severe adverse clinical outcomes, including death. Prevention and proper treatment of hyper- and hypokalemia depend on an understanding of the underlying physiology. The total body potassium content of a 70-kg adult is about 3500 mmol (136.5 g), of which only 2% […]