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Monthly Archives: October 2016

[Clinical Art][Circulation] Hemodynamic Monitoring – Tissue Oxygenation and Cardiac Output


Key Points No hemodynamic monitoring device will improve patient outcome unless coupled to a treatment, which itself improves outcome. Low venous oxygen saturations need not mean circulatory shock but do imply circulatory stress, as they may occur in the setting of hypoxemia, anemia, exercise, as well as circulatory shock. There is no "normal" cardiac output, […]

[Clinical Art][Circulation] Interpretation of Hemodynamic Waveforms


Basic Knowledge Mechanism of Hemodynamic Monitoring The rapidly occurring events (represent mechanical forces) of cardiac chambers and vessels during cardaic cycle require conversion to an electrical signal to be transmitted and subsequently translated into an interpretable, graphic format. The pressure transducer is the essential component that translates the mechanical forces to electrical signals. The transducer may […]

[Endocrinology] The Agonist-Receptor Interaction and Pharmacodynamics of Thyroid Hormone


Thyroid Hormone Receptors and Cellular Events Thyroid hormone receptors are expressed in virtually all tissues and affect multiple cellular events. The cellular actions of thyroid hormones are mediated by multiple thyroid hormone receptor isoforms derived from 2 distinct genes (alpha and beta) encoding thyroid hormone receptors. The functional significance of the different isoforms has not yet […]

[Endocrinology] The Regulation and Clinical Art of Thyroid Hormones


Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Process The Source Components of Thyroid Hormone Thyroglobulin (Tg), plays an important role in the synthesis and storage of thyroid hormone. Tg is a glycoprotein containing multiple tyrosine residues. It is synthesized in the thyroid follicular epithelial cells and secreted through the apical membrane into the follicular lumen, where it is stored […]