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Monthly Archives: August 2016

EKG – Supraventricular Arrhythmias


Mechanism for Arrhythmias ("HIS DEBS" rule) Hypoxia Ischemia and irritability Sympathetic stimulaiton Drugs Electrolyte disturbances Bradycardia Stretch Arrhythmias that originate in the atria or the AV node, the supraventricular arrhythmias. Atrial arrhythmias can consist of a single beat or a sustained rhythm disturbance lasting for a few seconds or many years. Atrial and Junctional Premature […]

The Physical Examination – Heart


The Splitting of Heart Sounds While these events are occurring on the left side of the heart, similar changes are occuring on the right side, which involves the right atrium, tricuspid valve, RV, pulmonic valve, and pulmonary arteries. Right ventricular and pulmonary arterial pressures are significantly lower than corresponding pressures on the left side. Note that […]

Hemostasis Mechanism – Platelet Structure and Function


Platelet Granules and Organelles Platelets possess secretory granules and mechanisms for cargo release to amplify responses to stimuli and influence the surrounding environment. Platelet granule structures include 𝛼- and dense granules, lysosomes, and peroxisomes. 𝛼-Granules and the dense bodies are the main secretory granules that release cargo (e.g., fibrinogen and adenosine diphosphate [ADP]) upon platelet […]

The TDM of Vancomycin


Question #1. B.C., a 65-year old, 45-kg man with a serum creatinine concentration of 2.2 mg/dL, is being treated for a presumed hospital-acquired, MRSA infection. Design a dosing regimen that will produce peak concentration less than 40 to 50 mg/L and through concentrations of 5 to 15 mg/L. Target Plasma Concentration Clearance and Volume of […]

Pathophysiology of The Circulation


The Diastolic V-P Curve Figure 31-4B plots LVEDV against LVEDP. As ventricular volume increases from zero, the transmural pressure of the ventricle does not exceed zero until about 50 mL (the unstressed volume) is added. Then LVEDP increases in a curvilinear manner with ventricular volume (the stressed volume) first as a large change in volume […]