Skip to content

Monthly Archives: March 2016

Drug Biotransformation Pathways


Pathway 1/Phase 1 Reactions Oxidation is probably the most common reaction in xenobiotic metabolism. This reaction is catalyzed by a group of membrane-bound monooxygenases found in the smooth ER of the liver and other extrahepatic tissues, termed the "cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzyme system". Additionally, P450 has been called a mixed-function oxidase or microsomal hydroxylase. P450 […]

Factors Affecting Metabolism


Drug therapy is becoming oriented more toward controlling metabolic, genetic, and environmental illnesss rather than short-term therapy associated with infectious disease. In most cases, drug therapy lasts for months or even years, and the problems of drug-drug interactions and chronic toxicity from long-term drug therapy have become more serious. Therefore, a greater knowledge of drug […]

How Pharmacogenetics Affects Drug Therapy


Polymorphisms of genes can affect drug therpay in three ways: polymorphisms in genes for drug-metabolizing enzymes, polymorphisms in genes encoding for drug transporters, and polymorphisms in genes encoding for drug targets. Polymorphisms in Genes for Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes Polymorphisms in the drug-metabolizing enzymes represent the first recognized and, so far, the most documented examples of genetic variants […]