Skip to content

Monthly Archives: November 2015

Mechanics of Breathing – Alveolar Ventilation


Important Measurements of Lung Functions The tidal volume (VT) is the volume of air entering or leaving the nose or mouth per breath. It is determined by the activity of the respiratory control centers in the brain as they affect the respiratory muscles and by the mechanics of the lung and the chest wall. During […]

Residents Series – Inflammatory Shock Syndromes


Definitions and Impactions SIRS/Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is a condition that is characterized by signs of systemic inflammation (e.g., fever, leukocytosis). The diagnosis of SIRS requires at least 2 of the following: 1.Temperature >38 C or <36 C 2.Heart rate >90 beats/min 3.Respiratory rate >20 breaths/min, or arterial PCO2 <32 mm Hg 4.WBC count >12,000/mm3 […]

Mechanics of Breathing – Airway Resistance


Events involved in a normal tidal breath – Inspiration – 1) Brain initiates inspiratory effort 2) Nerves carry the inspiratory command to the inspiratory muscles 3) Diaphragm and/or external intercostal muscles contract 4) Thoracic volume increases as the chest wall expands 5) Intrapleural pressure becomes more negative 6) Alveolar transmural pressure difference increases 7) Alveoli […]

Polymorphisms in Pharmacotherapy


Polymorphisms related to pharmacotherapy include polymorphisms in genes for drug-metabolizing enzymes, polymorphisms in drug transporter genes, and polymorphisms in drug target genes. Polymorphisms in Genes for Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes Polymorphisms in the drug-metabolizing enzymes represent the first recognized and, so far, the most documented examples of genetic variants with consequences in drug response and toxicity. eTable […]

Proximal Tubule Reabsorption and Secretion – Organic Solutes


A major function of the kidneys is the excretion of organic waste, forerign chemicals and their metabolites. As the kidneys excrete these substances they also filter large amounts of organic substances that they do not excrete, such as gllucose and amino acids. Therefore, the kidneys msut discriminate between what to keep and what to discard. […]