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Monthly Archives: October 2015

The Barriers, The Innate Immune System, and Correlations to Inflammation


Defenses of the skin and Mucosa Epidermis The epidermis consists of stratified squamous cells, most of which are keratinocytes. Keratinocytes produce the protein keratin, which is not readily degraded by most microorganisms. As cells from the dermis are pushed outward into the epidermal region, they produce copious amounts of keratin and then die. This layer of […]



Body Temperature System and Mechanisms could be found at thread "Mechanism of Thermoregulation" at Body temperature, at any given point in time, represents a balance between heat gain and heat loss. Body heat is generated in the core tissues of the body, transferred to the skin surface by the blood, and released into the environment […]

Basic Concepts in Laboratory Testings


Accuracy Accuracy is defined as the extent to which the mean measurement is close to the true value. A sample spiked with a known quantity of an analyte is measured repeatedly; the mean measurement is calculated. A highly accurate assay means that the repeated analyses produce a mean value that is the same as or […]

Afterload and Its Components


Afterload Also see information about afteroad in Pharmacy Profession Forum at Afterload in the intact heart reflects the resistance that the ventricle must overcome to empty its contents. It is more formally defined as the ventricular wall stress that develops during systolic ejection. Wall stress (σ), like pressure, is expressed as force per unit area […]

Physiologic Adapations and Maladaptations in Heart Failure


Basic Concepts Preload The concept of preload in the intact heart was described by physiologists Frank and Starling a century ago. The preload can be though of as the amount of myocardial stretch at the end of diastole, just before contraction. Measurements that correlate with myocardial stretch, and that are often used to indicate the […]