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Monthly Archives: September 2015

The Management of Hypertension (Interventions)


Overall Goals The overall goal of treating hypertension is to reduce hypertension-associated morbidity and mortality. This morbidity and mortality is related to hypertension-associated target-organ damage (e.g., ASCVD, retinopathies, cerebrovascular events, heart disease, kidney disease, and PAD etc.). Reducing CV risk is the primary purpose of hypertension therapy and the specific choice of drug therapy should […]

The Management of Hypertension (Clinical Evaluation)


Frequently, the only sign of essential hypertension is elevated BP. The rest of the physical examination may be completely normal. However, a complete medical evaluation including a comprehensive medical history, physical examination, and laboratory and/or diagnostic test is recommended after diagnosis to identify secondary causes, identify other CV risk factors or comorbid conditions that may […]

The Management of Hypertension (Pathophysiologic Basises)


Hypertension is a common diseases and is defined as persistently elevated arterial blood pressure of >= 140/90 mm Hg. Most of patients belong to essential hypertension and a small percentage belong to secondary hypertension for which the most common causes include renal dysfunction resulting from severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) or renovascular disease. Besides, certain […]

Control of Venous Tone


Before considering the details of the control of venous tone, recall that venues and veins play a much different role in the cardiovascular system than do arterioles. Arterioles are the inflow valves that control the rate of nutritive blood flow through organs and individual regions within them. Appropriately, arterioles are usually strongly influenced by the […]

Antimicrobials – The Basic Mechanisms


The antimicrobials produce their bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects by targeting at certain sites of the pathogens which are susceptible to the antibiotics. Generally, the mechanisms of all antibiotics can be divided into five basic types, or four targets toward which these antibiotics act, including: cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, folate biosynthesis, and […]