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Monthly Archives: March 2015

Pharmacokinetics Series – Clearance and Maintenance Dose


Clearance and Maintenance Dose Clearance can be thought of as the intrinsic ability of the body or its organs of elimination (usually the kidneys and the liver) to remove drug from the blood or plasma. Clearance is expressed as a volume per unit of time. It is important to emphasise that clearance is not an […]

Inflammation Mediators


The mediators of inflammation are the substances that initiate and regulate inflammatory reactions. The most important inflammation mediators include vasoactive amines, lipid products (prostaglandins and leukotrienes), cytokines (including chemokines), and products of complement activation. These mediators induce various components of the inflammatory response typically by distinct mechanisms, which is why inhibiting each has been therapeutically beneficial. However, there is also some […]

[Respiratory] Systemic Oxygenation and Parameters


Oxygen may be necessary for life, but it doesn’t prevent death. Critical care management is dominated by interventions that promote tissue oxygenation, yet there are no direct measurements of the oxygen tension in tissue. Instead, a variety of global, indirect measures of tissue oxygenation are used to guide aerobic support. Note that these oxygenation parameters […]

Inflammation – The Beginning and Ongoing


Inflammation is a response of vascularized tissues to infections, foreign invaders, and damaged tissues that brings cells and molecules of host defines from the circulation to the sites where they are needed, in order to eliminate the offending agents. Inflammation generally is a defensive response that is essential for survival, where mediators of this response […]