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Monthly Archives: December 2014

How to Choose, Monitor, and Evaluate the Therapeutic Regimen (Pharmacologic Perspective)


The relation between drug dose and clinical response is compared with drug concentration/dose and pharmacologic response. The relation between drug concentration and drug response is in carefully controlled systems in vitro, which can be relative simple. Conversely, the relation between dose of a drug and the clinically observed response may be complex (actually it is true). […]

Ligand- and Voltage-Gated Channels (Receptors)


Ligand-Gated Channels Some ligands including natural and agents regulate the flow of ions through plasma membrane channels which could be understood as ligand-gated receptors/channels. The natural ligands are acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and glutamate and all are synaptic transmitters. Each of their receptors transmits it signal across the plasma membrane by increasing transmembrane conductance of the […]

The Plasma Protein Concentration and The Interpretation of TDM Report


Most clinical laboratory reports of drug concentrations in plasma (C) represent drug that is bound to plasma protein plus drug that is unbound of free. It is the free or unbound drug that is in equilibrium with the receptor site and is, therefore, the pharmacologically active moiety. Thus, in the case of a drug with […]