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Monthly Archives: November 2014

Transmembrane Enzymes Including Receptors


In general, there are five basic types of receptors. They include 1. a lipid -solube ligand that crosses the membrane and acts on an intracellular receptor (see detail here at; 2. a transmembrane receptor protein whose intracellular enzymatic activity is allosterically regulated by a ligand that binds to a site on the protein’s extracellular […]

[Physiology] The Sense, The Coding, and The Ascending Tracts


First Part, Sense and Sensory Coding Converting a receptor stimulus to a recongnizable sensation is termed sensory coding. All sensory systems code for four elementary attributes of a stimulus: 1.modality, the type of energy transmitted by the stimulus;2.location, the site on the body or space where the stimulus originated;3.intensity, which is signaled by the response […]

How to Install Yosemite on Tonymacx86’s Custo Mac Pro (8GB*2 RAM)


My PC: i7 4790k Kingston 8GB*2 DDR3 1600 (the RAM oc to 1866 automatically) Giga GTX760 4GB Giga Z97X-UD3H 840 EVO 120G SSD 550W Power Source: #1 Hello everyone, that is my guide to successfully install OS X Yosemite for the Gigabyte GA-Z97X-UD3H. It works everything except iMessage and FaceTime, you can enable them following […]

The Pain – The Basic Concepts


Pain is an unpleasant sensation localized to a part of the body. It is often described in terms of a penetrating or tissue-destructive process (e.g., stabbing, burning, twisting, tearing, squeezing) and/or of a bodily or emotional reaction (e.g., terrifying, nauseating, sickening). Furthermore, any pain of moderate or higher intensity is accompanied by anxiety and the […]

Donnan Effect and The Equilibrium Potential


When an ion on one side of a membrane cannot diffuse through the membrane, the distribution of other ions to which the membrane is permeable is affected in a predictable way. For example, the negative charge of a nondiffusible anion hinders diffusion of the diffusible cations and favors diffusion of the diffusible anions. See example […]