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Monthly Archives: March 2014

The Physiology of Cardiovascular System (Arterial System and Capillaries)


To understand the circulatory regulation and cardiology therapeutics, we must first know the physiology of cardiovascular system. Structure Here, we will first describe the two major cell types that make up the blood vessels and then how they are arranged into the various vessel types that subserve the needs of the circulation. Generally, blood vessels […]

Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes (Part One)


Effectiveness of MNT (Medical Nutrition Therapy) Clinical trials/outcome studies of MNT have reported decreases in HbA1c of ~1% in type 1 diabetes and 1-2% in type 2 diabetes, depending on the duration of diabetes. Meta-analysis of studies in nondiabetic, free-living subjects and expert committees report that MNT reduce LDL cholesterol by 15-25 mg/dl. After initiation […]

Systematic Approach for Selection of Antimicrobials


Choosing an antimicrobial agent to treat an infection is far more complicated than matching a drug to a known or suspected pathogen. Generally, the systematic approach for selection of antimicrobials includes four steps: 1. Confirm the presence of infection Careful history and physical examination Signs and symptoms Predisposing factors 2. Identification of the pathogen Collection […]

The Regular of Extracellular Fluids – ADH Secretion and Renin-Angiotensin System


The volume of ECF is determined primarily by the total amount of osmotically active solute in the ECF. Excessive loss of Na+┬áin the stools (diarrhea), urine (severe acidosis, adrenal insufficiency), or sweat (heat prostration) decreases ECF volume markedly and eventually leads to shock. The regular of extracellular fluids is based on vasopressin (ADH) and renin-angiotensin […]